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Französisches wikipedia

französisches wikipedia

5. Apr. Wo wir gerade beim Eingriff von staatlichen Behörden auf die Wikipedia sind: Der französische Geheimdienst hat einen Artikel aus der. Französisch bzw. die französische Sprache (französisch (le) français [(lə) fʁɑ̃ˈsɛ], (la) langue française [ (la) lɑ̃ɡ fʁɑ̃ˈsεz]) gehört zu der romanischen Gruppe. Das französische Parlament (französisch Parlement français) ist ein Zweikammerparlament in der französischen Hauptstadt Paris. Gemäß der Verfassung der.

Cockades with various colour schemes were used during the storming of the Bastille on 14 July. Lafayette argued for the addition of a white stripe to "nationalise" the design.

Fasces are Roman in origin and suggest Roman Republicanism. Fasces are a bundle of birch rods containing an axe. The French Republic continued this Roman symbol to represent state power, justice, and unity.

The Liberty cap, also known as the Phrygian cap , or pileus , is a brimless, felt cap that is conical in shape with the tip pulled forward. It reflects Roman republicanism and liberty, alluding to the Roman ritual of manumission of slaves, in which a freed slave receives the bonnet as a symbol of his newfound liberty.

Historians since the late 20th century have debated how women shared in the French Revolution and what long-term impact it had on French women.

Women had no political rights in pre-Revolutionary France; they were considered "passive" citizens; forced to rely on men to determine what was best for them.

That changed dramatically in theory as there seemingly were great advances in feminism. Feminism emerged in Paris as part of a broad demand for social and political reform.

The women demanded equality for women and then moved on to a demand for the end of male domination. The movement was crushed.

When the Revolution opened, groups of women acted forcefully, making use of the volatile political climate. Women forced their way into the political sphere.

They swore oaths of loyalty, "solemn declarations of patriotic allegiance, [and] affirmations of the political responsibilities of citizenship.

The March to Versailles is but one example of feminist militant activism during the French Revolution. The Society of Revolutionary Republican Women, a militant group on the far left, demanded a law in that would compel all women to wear the tricolour cockade to demonstrate their loyalty to the Republic.

They also demanded vigorous price controls to keep bread — the major food of the poor people — from becoming too expensive. After the Convention passage law in September , the Revolutionary Republican Women demanded vigorous enforcement, but were counted by market women, former servants, and religious women who adamantly opposed price controls which would drive them out of business and resented attacks on the aristocracy and on religion.

Fist fights broke out in the streets between the two factions of women. Meanwhile, the men who controlled the Jacobins rejected the Revolutionary Republican Women as dangerous rabble-rousers.

They sternly reminded women to stay home and tend to their families by leaving public affairs to the men. Organised women were permanently shut out of the French Revolution after 30 October Olympe de Gouges wrote a number of plays, short stories, and novels.

In her "Declaration on the Rights of Woman" she insisted that women deserved rights, especially in areas concerning them directly, such as divorce and recognition of illegitimate children.

Manon or Marie Roland was another important female activist. Her political focus was not specifically on women or their liberation. She focused on other aspects of the government, but was a feminist by virtue of the fact that she was a woman working to influence the world.

Her personal letters to leaders of the Revolution influenced policy; in addition, she often hosted political gatherings of the Brissotins, a political group which allowed women to join.

As she was led to the scaffold, Madame Roland shouted "O liberty! What crimes are committed in thy name! Most of these activists were punished for their actions.

Many of the women of the Revolution were even publicly executed for "conspiring against the unity and the indivisibility of the Republic". A major aspect of the French Revolution was the dechristianisation movement, a movement strongly rejected by many devout people.

Especially for women living in rural areas of France, the closing of the churches meant a loss of normalcy.

When these revolutionary changes to the Church were implemented, it sparked a counter-revolutionary movement among women. Although some of these women embraced the political and social amendments of the Revolution, they opposed the dissolution of the Catholic Church and the formation of revolutionary cults like the Cult of the Supreme Being.

Counter-revolutionary women resisted what they saw as the intrusion of the state into their lives. By far the most important issue to counter-revolutionary women was the passage and the enforcement of the Civil Constitution of the Clergy in In response to this measure, women in many areas began circulating anti-oath pamphlets and refused to attend masses held by priests who had sworn oaths of loyalty to the Republic.

These women continued to adhere to traditional practices such as Christian burials and naming their children after saints in spite of revolutionary decrees to the contrary.

The French Revolution abolished many of the constraints on the economy that had slowed growth during the ancien regime.

It abolished tithes owed to local churches as well as feudal dues owed to local landlords. The result hurt the tenants, who paid both higher rents and higher taxes.

It planned to use these seized lands to finance the government by issuing assignats. It abolished the guild system as a worthless remnant of feudalism.

The government seized the foundations that had been set up starting in the 13th century to provide an annual stream of revenue for hospitals, poor relief, and education.

The economy did poorly in —96 as industrial and agricultural output dropped, foreign trade plunged, and prices soared.

The government decided not to repudiate the old debts. Instead it issued more and more paper money called "assignat" that supposedly were grounded seized lands.

The result was escalating inflation. The government imposed price controls and persecuted speculators and traders in the black market.

The assignats were withdrawn in but the replacements also fuelled inflation. The inflation was finally ended by Napoleon in with the franc as the new currency.

Napoleon after paid for his expensive wars by multiple means, starting with the modernisation of the rickety financial system. The French Revolution had a major impact on Europe and the New World , decisively changing the course of human history.

Otto Dann and John Dinwiddy report, "It has long been almost a truism of European history that the French Revolution gave a great stimulus to the growth of modern nationalism.

Hayes as a major result of the French Revolution across Europe. The impact on French nationalism was profound. For example, Napoleon became such a heroic symbol of the nation that the glory was easily picked up by his nephew, who was overwhelmingly elected president and later became Emperor Napoleon III.

The changes in France were enormous; some were widely accepted and others were bitterly contested into the late 20th century. The kings had so thoroughly centralised the system that most nobles spent their time at Versailles, and thus played only a small direct role in their home districts.

Thompson says that the kings had "ruled by virtue of their personal wealth, their patronage of the nobility, their disposal of ecclesiastical offices, their provincial governors intendants their control over the judges and magistrates, and their command of the Army.

After the first year of revolution, the power of the king had been stripped away, he was left a mere figurehead, the nobility had lost all their titles and most of their land, the Church lost its monasteries and farmlands, bishops, judges and magistrates were elected by the people, and the army was almost helpless, with military power in the hands of the new revolutionary National Guard.

The central elements of were the slogan "Liberty, Equality and Fraternity" and " The Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen ", which Lefebvre calls "the incarnation of the Revolution as a whole.

The long-term impact on France was profound, shaping politics, society, religion and ideas, and polarising politics for more than a century. The French Revolution differed from other revolutions in being not merely national, for it aimed at benefiting all humanity.

The most heated controversy was over the status of the Catholic Church. The movement to dechristianise France not only failed but aroused a furious reaction among the pious.

Priests and bishops were given salaries as part of a department of government controlled by Paris, not Rome. Protestants and Jews gained equal rights.

They raged into the 20th century. By the 21st century, angry debates exploded over the presence of any Muslim religious symbols in schools, such as the headscarves for which Muslim girls could be expelled.

Christopher Soper and Joel S. Fetzer explicitly link the conflict over religious symbols in public to the French Revolution, when the target was Catholic rituals and symbols.

The revolutionary government seized the charitable foundations that had been set up starting in the 13th century to provide an annual stream of revenue for hospitals, poor relief, and education.

In the ancien regime, new opportunities for nuns as charitable practitioners were created by devout nobles on their own estates. During the Revolution, most of the orders of nuns were shut down and there was no organised nursing care to replace them.

They were tolerated by officials because they had widespread support and were the link between elite male physicians and distrustful peasants who needed help.

Two thirds of France was employed in agriculture, which was transformed by the Revolution. With the breakup of large estates controlled by the Church and the nobility and worked by hired hands, rural France became more a land of small independent farms.

Harvest taxes were ended, such as the tithe and seigneurial dues, much to the relief of the peasants. Primogeniture was ended both for nobles and peasants, thereby weakening the family patriarch.

In the cities, entrepreneurship on a small scale flourished, as restrictive monopolies, privileges, barriers, rules, taxes and guilds gave way.

However, the British blockade virtually ended overseas and colonial trade, hurting the port cities and their supply chains. Overall, the Revolution did not greatly change the French business system, and probably helped freeze in place the horizons of the small business owner.

The typical businessman owned a small store, mill or shop, with family help and a few paid employees; large-scale industry was less common than in other industrialising nations.

A National Bureau of Economic Research paper found that the emigration of more than , individuals predominantly supporters of the Old Regime during the Revolution had a significant negative impact on income per capita in the 19th century due to the fragmentation of agricultural holdings but became positive in the second half of the 20th century onward because it facilitated the rise in human capital investments.

The Revolution meant an end to arbitrary royal rule and held out the promise of rule by law under a constitutional order, but it did not rule out a monarch.

Napoleon as emperor set up a constitutional system although he remained in full control , and the restored Bourbons were forced to go along with one.

After the abdication of Napoleon III in , the monarchists probably had a voting majority, but they were so factionalised they could not agree on who should be king, and instead the French Third Republic was launched with a deep commitment to upholding the ideals of the Revolution.

Vichy denied the principle of equality and tried to replace the Revolutionary watchwords "Liberty, Equality, Fraternity" with "Work, Family, and Fatherland.

France permanently became a society of equals under the law. The Jacobin cause was picked up by Marxists in the midth century and became an element of communist thought around the world.

In the Soviet Union , "Gracchus" Babeuf was regarded as a hero. Robinson the French Revolution had long-term effects in Europe.

They suggest that "areas that were occupied by the French and that underwent radical institutional reform experienced more rapid urbanization and economic growth, especially after There is no evidence of a negative effect of French invasion.

A study in the European Economic Review found that the areas of Germany that were occupied by France in the 19th century and in which the Code Napoleon was applied have higher levels of trust and cooperation today.

From this moment we may consider France as a free country, the King a very limited monarch, and the nobility as reduced to a level with the rest of the nation.

Britain led and funded the series of coalitions that fought France from to , and then restored the Bourbons. Philosophically and politically, Britain was in debate over the rights and wrongs of revolution, in the abstract and in practicalities.

The Revolution Controversy was a " pamphlet war " set off by the publication of A Discourse on the Love of Our Country , a speech given by Richard Price to the Revolution Society on 4 November , supporting the French Revolution as he had the American Revolution , and saying that patriotism actually centers around loving the people and principles of a nation, not its ruling class.

Edmund Burke responded in November with his own pamphlet, Reflections on the Revolution in France , attacking the French Revolution as a threat to the aristocracy of all countries.

In Christopher Wyvill published Defence of Dr. Price and the Reformers of England , a plea for reform and moderation. This exchange of ideas has been described as "one of the great political debates in British history".

In Ireland, the effect was to transform what had been an attempt by Protestant settlers to gain some autonomy into a mass movement led by the Society of United Irishmen involving Catholics and Protestants.

It stimulated the demand for further reform throughout Ireland, especially in Ulster. The upshot was a revolt in , led by Wolfe Tone , that was crushed by Britain.

German reaction to the Revolution swung from favourable to antagonistic. At first it brought liberal and democratic ideas, the end of gilds, serfdom and the Jewish ghetto.

It brought economic freedoms and agrarian and legal reform. Above all the antagonism helped stimulate and shape German nationalism.

The French invaded Switzerland and turned it into an ally known as the " Helvetic Republic " — The interference with localism and traditional liberties was deeply resented, although some modernising reforms took place.

The region of modern-day Belgium was divided between two polities: Both territories experienced revolutions in Both failed to attract international support.

During the Revolutionary Wars, the French invaded and occupied the region between and , a time known as the French period.

The new government enforced new reforms, incorporating the region into France itself. New rulers were sent in by Paris. Belgian men were drafted into the French wars and heavily taxed.

Nearly everyone was Catholic, but the Church was repressed. Resistance was strong in every sector, as Belgian nationalism emerged to oppose French rule.

The French legal system, however, was adopted, with its equal legal rights, and abolition of class distinctions. Belgium now had a government bureaucracy selected by merit.

Antwerp regained access to the sea and grew quickly as a major port and business centre. France promoted commerce and capitalism, paving the way for the ascent of the bourgeoisie and the rapid growth of manufacturing and mining.

The Kingdom of Denmark adopted liberalising reforms in line with those of the French Revolution, with no direct contact. Reform was gradual and the regime itself carried out agrarian reforms that had the effect of weakening absolutism by creating a class of independent peasant freeholders.

Much of the initiative came from well-organised liberals who directed political change in the first half of the 19th century. The Revolution deeply polarised American politics, and this polarisation led to the creation of the First Party System.

In , as war broke out in Europe, the Republican Party led by Thomas Jefferson favoured France and pointed to the treaty that was still in effect.

George Washington and his unanimous cabinet, including Jefferson, decided that the treaty did not bind the United States to enter the war.

Washington proclaimed neutrality instead. Jefferson became president in , but was hostile to Napoleon as a dictator and emperor.

However, the two entered negotiations over the Louisiana Territory and agreed to the Louisiana Purchase in , an acquisition that substantially increased the size of the United States.

The French Revolution has received enormous amounts of historical attention, both from the general public and from scholars and academics.

The views of historians, in particular, have been characterised as falling along ideological lines, with disagreement over the significance and the major developments of the Revolution.

Historians until the late 20th century emphasised class conflicts from a largely Marxist perspective as the fundamental driving cause of the Revolution.

By the year many historians were saying that the field of the French Revolution was in intellectual disarray. The old model or paradigm focusing on class conflict has been discredited, and no new explanatory model had gained widespread support.

Historians widely regard the Revolution as one of the most important events in history. It marks the end of the early modern period , which started around and is often seen as marking the "dawn of the modern era ".

After the collapse of the First Empire in , the French public lost the rights and privileges earned since the Revolution, but they remembered the participatory politics that characterised the period, with one historian commenting: Revolution became a tradition, and republicanism an enduring option.

Some historians argue that the French people underwent a fundamental transformation in self-identity, evidenced by the elimination of privileges and their replacement by rights as well as the growing decline in social deference that highlighted the principle of equality throughout the Revolution.

This, combined with the egalitarian values introduced by the revolution, gave rise to a classless and co-operative model for society called " socialism " which profoundly influenced future revolutions in France and around the world.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see French Revolution disambiguation. The Storming of the Bastille , 14 July Part of a series on the.

Direct Capetians — Valois — Causes of the French Revolution. Estates General of in France. National Assembly French Revolution. National Constituent Assembly France.

Storming of the Bastille. Abolition of feudalism in France. Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen.

French Constitution of Divine right of kings Mandate of Heaven. Trienio Liberal First French Empire. Liberal Wars Second French Empire. Italian unification Meiji Restoration.

Xinhai Revolution Russian Revolution. Iranian Revolution Modern Cambodia. Communitarianism Democracy Liberalism Monarchism.

French Revolutionary Wars and Napoleonic Wars. Execution of Louis XVI. Symbolism in the French Revolution. The French national anthem La Marseillaise ; text in French.

Influence of the French Revolution. Historiography of the French Revolution. List of political groups in the French Revolution.

Making Democracy in the French Revolution p. This was the truly original contribution of the Revolution to modern political culture.

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Women of the French Revolution pp. Out of the Shadows: Significant civil and political events by year. At the end of the Antiquity period, ancient Gaul was divided into several Germanic kingdoms and a remaining Gallo-Roman territory, known as the Kingdom of Syagrius.

Simultaneously, Celtic Britons , fleeing the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain , settled the western part of Armorica.

As a result, the Armorican peninsula was renamed Brittany , Celtic culture was revived and independent petty kingdoms arose in this region.

The pagan Franks, from whom the ancient name of "Francie" was derived, originally settled the north part of Gaul , but under Clovis I conquered most of the other kingdoms in northern and central Gaul.

The Germanic Franks adopted Romanic languages , except in northern Gaul where Roman settlements were less dense and where Germanic languages emerged.

Clovis made Paris his capital and established the Merovingian dynasty , but his kingdom would not survive his death.

The last Merovingian kings lost power to their mayors of the palace head of household. One mayor of the palace, Charles Martel , defeated an Islamic invasion of Gaul at the Battle of Tours and earned respect and power within the Frankish kingdoms.

His son, Pepin the Short , seized the crown of Francia from the weakened Merovingians and founded the Carolingian dynasty. West Francia approximated the area occupied by, and was the precursor to, modern France.

During the 9th and 10th centuries, continually threatened by Viking invasions , France became a very decentralised state: Thus was established feudalism in France.

For example, after the Battle of Hastings in , William the Conqueror added "King of England" to his titles, becoming both the vassal to as Duke of Normandy and the equal of as king of England the king of France, creating recurring tensions.

The French nobility played a prominent role in most Crusades in order to restore Christian access to the Holy Land. French knights made up the bulk of the steady flow of reinforcements throughout the two-hundred-year span of the Crusades, in such a fashion that the Arabs uniformly referred to the crusaders as Franj caring little whether they really came from France.

The latter, in particular, held numerous properties throughout France and by the 13th century were the principal bankers for the French crown, until Philip IV annihilated the order in The Albigensian Crusade was launched in to eliminate the heretical Cathars in the southwestern area of modern-day France.

In the end, the Cathars were exterminated and the autonomous County of Toulouse was annexed into the crown lands of France.

Meanwhile, the royal authority became more and more assertive, centred on a hierarchically conceived society distinguishing nobility , clergy, and commoners.

Charles IV the Fair died without an heir in During the reign of Philip of Valois , the French monarchy reached the height of its medieval power.

With charismatic leaders, such as Joan of Arc and La Hire , strong French counterattacks won back English continental territories. Like the rest of Europe, France was struck by the Black Death; half of the 17 million population of France died.

French explorers, such as Jacques Cartier or Samuel de Champlain , claimed lands in the Americas for France, paving the way for the expansion of the First French colonial empire.

The rise of Protestantism in Europe led France to a civil war known as the French Wars of Religion , where, in the most notorious incident, thousands of Huguenots were murdered in the St.

Under Louis XIII , the energetic Cardinal Richelieu promoted the centralisation of the state and reinforced the royal power by disarming domestic power holders in the s.

He systematically destroyed castles of defiant lords and denounced the use of private violence dueling , carrying weapons, and maintaining private army.

By the end of s, Richelieu established "the royal monopoly of force" as the doctrine. The war cost France , casualties.

This rebellion was driven by the great feudal lords and sovereign courts as a reaction to the rise of royal absolute power in France.

The monarchy reached its peak during the 17th century and the reign of Louis XIV. Remembered for his numerous wars, he made France the leading European power.

France became the most populous country in Europe and had tremendous influence over European politics, economy, and culture. French became the most-used language in diplomacy, science, literature and international affairs, and remained so until the 20th century.

Its European territory kept growing, however, with notable acquisitions such as Lorraine and Corsica Much of the Enlightenment occurred in French intellectual circles, and major scientific breakthroughs and inventions, such as the discovery of oxygen and the first hot air balloon carrying passengers , were achieved by French scientists.

The Enlightenment philosophy, in which reason is advocated as the primary source for legitimacy and authority , undermined the power of and support for the monarchy and helped pave the way for the French Revolution.

As it came to an impasse, the representatives of the Third Estate formed into a National Assembly , signalling the outbreak of the French Revolution.

In early August , the National Constituent Assembly abolished the privileges of the nobility such as personal serfdom and exclusive hunting rights.

Through the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen 27 August France established fundamental rights for men. The Declaration affirms "the natural and imprescriptible rights of man" to "liberty, property, security and resistance to oppression".

Freedom of speech and press were declared, and arbitrary arrests outlawed. It called for the destruction of aristocratic privileges and proclaimed freedom and equal rights for all men, as well as access to public office based on talent rather than birth.

In November , the Assembly decided to nationalize and sell all property of the Roman Catholic Church which had been the largest landowner in the country.

In July , a Civil Constitution of the Clergy reorganised the French Catholic Church, cancelling the authority of the Church to levy taxes, et cetera.

This fueled much discontent in parts of France, which would contribute to the civil war breaking out some years later.

While King Louis XVI still enjoyed popularity among the population, his disastrous flight to Varennes June seemed to justify rumours he had tied his hopes of political salvation to the prospects of foreign invasion.

His credibility was so deeply undermined that the abolition of the monarchy and establishment of a republic became an increasing possibility.

In August , the Emperor of Austria and the King of Prussia in the Declaration of Pillnitz threatened revolutionary France to intervene by force of arms to restore the French absolute monarchy.

A majority in the Assembly in however saw a war with Austria and Prussia as a chance to boost the popularity of the revolutionary government, and thought that France would win a war against those gathered monarchies.

On 20 April , therefore, they declared war on Austria. In early September, Parisians, infuriated by the Prussian army capturing Verdun and counter-revolutionary uprisings in the west of France, murdered between 1, and 1, prisoners by raiding the Parisian prisons.

The Assembly and the Paris city council seemed unable to stop that bloodshed. Some historians consider the civil war to have lasted until with a toll of possibly , lives.

Political disagreements and enmity in the National Convention between October and July reached unprecedented levels, leading to dozens of Convention members being sentenced to death and guillotined.

In , the government seemed to return to indifference towards the desires and needs of the lower classes concerning freedom of Catholic religion and fair distribution of food.

Napoleon Bonaparte seized control of the Republic in becoming First Consul and later Emperor of the French Empire —; His armies conquered most of continental Europe with swift victories such as the battles of Jena-Auerstadt or Austerlitz.

Members of the Bonaparte family were appointed as monarchs in some of the newly established kingdoms. After the catastrophic Russian campaign , and the ensuing uprising of European monarchies against his rule, Napoleon was defeated and the Bourbon monarchy restored.

About a million Frenchmen died during the Napoleonic Wars. The discredited Bourbon dynasty was overthrown by the July Revolution of , which established the constitutional July Monarchy.

According to historian Ben Kiernan , the French conquest and pacification of Algeria from until the early twentieth century slaughtered , Algerian people.

French losses from —51 were 92, dead in the hospital and only 3, killed in action. In general unrest led to the February Revolution and the end of the July Monarchy.

The abolition of slavery and male universal suffrage , both briefly enacted during the French Revolution were re-enacted in He multiplied French interventions abroad, especially in Crimea , in Mexico and Italy which resulted in the annexation of the duchy of Savoy and the county of Nice , then part of the Kingdom of Sardinia.

France had colonial possessions , in various forms, since the beginning of the 17th century, but in the 19th and 20th centuries, its global overseas colonial empire extended greatly and became the second largest in the world behind the British Empire.

Including metropolitan France , the total area of land under French sovereignty almost reached 13 million square kilometres in the s and s, 8.

In , state secularism was officially established. The French conquest of Morocco was one of the longest and toughest in the annals of European colonialism.

French historian Daniel Rivet puts the casualty rate among Moroccans who resisted the French occupation at , A small part of Northern France was occupied, but France and its allies emerged victorious against the Central Powers at a tremendous human and material cost.

World War I left 1. In , France was invaded and occupied by Nazi Germany. Metropolitan France was divided into a German occupation zone in the north and Vichy France , a newly established authoritarian regime collaborating with Germany , in the south, while Free France , the government-in-exile led by Charles de Gaulle , was set up in London.

This interim government, established by de Gaulle, aimed to continue to wage war against Germany and to purge collaborators from office.

It also made several important reforms suffrage extended to women, creation of a social security system. The GPRF laid the groundwork for a new constitutional order that resulted in the Fourth Republic , which saw spectacular economic growth les Trente Glorieuses.

France was one of the founding members of NATO More than 40, Algerian fell victim to the shooting and strafing, from planes, and armed cars.

Between March and September , the electoral victory of the proponents of independence in Madagascar was followed by a savage repression by the French army 18,, mostly Senegalese , troops , resulting in some 90, deaths.

Estimates of the number of Vietnamese military and civilian casualties during the war of independence from France range from , dead and , wounded to half a million dead and 1 million wounded.

Only months later, France faced another anti-colonialist conflict in Algeria. Torture and illegal executions were perpetrated by both sides and the debate over whether or not to keep control of Algeria , then home to over one million European settlers , [77] wracked the country and nearly led to a coup and civil war.

Despite its military victory, France granted independence to Algerians. The war exacted a heavy human toll among the Algerian population.

It resulted in some , deaths and 2,, internally displaced Algerians. In the context of the Cold War , de Gaulle pursued a policy of "national independence" towards the Western and Eastern blocs.

He restored cordial Franco-German relations in order to create a European counterweight between the American and Soviet spheres of influence.

However, he opposed any development of a supranational Europe , favouring a Europe of sovereign nations. In the wake of the series of worldwide protests of , the revolt of May had an enormous social impact.

In France, it is considered to be the watershed moment when a conservative moral ideal religion, patriotism, respect for authority shifted towards a more liberal moral ideal secularism , individualism , sexual revolution.

Although the revolt was a political failure as the Gaullist party emerged even stronger than before it announced a split between the French people and de Gaulle who resigned shortly after.

In the post-Gaullist era, France remained one of the most developed economies in the world , but faced several economic crises that resulted in high unemployment rates and increasing public debt.

In the late 20th and early 21st centuries France has been at the forefront of the development of a supranational European Union , notably by signing the Maastricht Treaty which created the European Union in , establishing the Eurozone in , and signing the Lisbon Treaty in Since the 19th century France has received many immigrants.

These have been mostly male foreign workers from European Catholic countries who generally returned home when not employed.

It resulted in hundreds of thousands of Muslims especially in the larger cities living in subsidised public housing and suffering from very high unemployment rates.

They were encouraged to retain their distinctive cultures and traditions and required merely to integrate. It is bordered by the North Sea in the north, the English Channel in the northwest, the Atlantic Ocean in the west and the Mediterranean sea in the southeast.

It land borders consist of Belgium and Luxembourg in the northeast, Germany and Switzerland in the east, Italy and Monaco in the southeast, and Andorra and Spain in the south and southwest.

Metropolitan France includes various coastal islands, of which the largest is Corsica. France has several overseas regions across the world, which are organised along different:.

France possesses a wide variety of landscapes, from coastal plains in the north and west to mountain ranges of the Alps in the southeast, the Massif Central in the south central and Pyrenees in the southwest.

Metropolitan France has a wide variety of topographical sets and natural landscapes. Large parts of the current territory of France were raised during several tectonic episodes like the Hercynian uplift in the Paleozoic Era, during which the Armorican Massif , the Massif Central , the Morvan , the Vosges and Ardennes ranges and the island of Corsica were formed.

These massifs delineate several sedimentary basins such as the Aquitaine basin in the southwest and the Paris basin in the north, the latter including several areas of particularly fertile ground such as the silt beds of Beauce and Brie.

The Alpine, Pyrenean and Jura mountains are much younger and have less eroded forms. The coastlines offer contrasting landscapes: Corsica lies off the Mediterranean coast.

Other water courses drain towards the Meuse and Rhine along the north-eastern borders. Corsica and a small part of the territory bordering the mediterranean basin lies in the Csa and Csb zones.

As the French metropolitan territory is relatively large, the climate is not uniform, giving rise to the following climate nuances:.

France was one of the first countries to create an environment ministry, in The parks foster ecological research programmes and public education in the natural sciences.

The French Republic is divided into 18 regions located in Europe and overseas , five overseas collectivities , one overseas territory , one special collectivity — New Caledonia and one uninhabited island directly under the authority of the Minister of Overseas France — Clipperton.

Since France is mainly divided into 18 administrative regions: This number is used in postal codes and was formerly used on vehicle number plates.

The departments are subdivided into arrondissements , which are, in turn, subdivided into 2, cantons. The regions, departments and communes are all known as territorial collectivities , meaning they possess local assemblies as well as an executive.

Arrondissements and cantons are merely administrative divisions. However, this was not always the case. Until , the arrondissements were territorial collectivities with an elected assembly, but these were suspended by the Vichy regime and definitely abolished by the Fourth Republic in Overseas collectivities and territories form part of the French Republic, but do not form part of the European Union or its fiscal area with the exception of St.

Bartelemy, which seceded from Guadeloupe in In contrast, the five overseas regions used the French franc and now use the euro. The French Republic is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic with strong democratic traditions.

The executive branch itself has two leaders: Senators are chosen by an electoral college for 6-year terms originally 9-year terms , and one half of the seats are submitted to election every 3 years starting in September Since World War II, they were marginalized while French politics became characterised by two politically opposed groupings: In the presidential and legislative elections, radical centrist party En Marche!

France uses a civil legal system; [90] that is, law arises primarily from written statutes; judges are not to make law, but merely to interpret it though the amount of judicial interpretation in certain areas makes it equivalent to case law.

Basic principles of the rule of law were laid in the Napoleonic Code which was, in turn, largely based on the royal law codified under Louis XIV.

In agreement with the principles of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, law should only prohibit actions detrimental to society.

As Guy Canivet , first president of the Court of Cassation , wrote about the management of prisons: Freedom is the rule, and its restriction is the exception; any restriction of Freedom must be provided for by Law and must follow the principles of necessity and proportionality.

That is, Law should lay out prohibitions only if they are needed, and if the inconveniences caused by this restriction do not exceed the inconveniences that the prohibition is supposed to remedy.

French law is divided into two principal areas: Private law includes, in particular, civil law and criminal law. Public law includes, in particular, administrative law and constitutional law.

However, in practical terms, French law comprises three principal areas of law: Criminal laws can only address the future and not the past criminal ex post facto laws are prohibited.

France does not recognise religious law as a motivation for the enactment of prohibitions. France has long had neither blasphemy laws nor sodomy laws the latter being abolished in Since , civil unions for homosexual couples are permitted, and since May , same-sex marriage and LGBT adoption are legal in France.

Some consider however that hate speech laws in France are too broad or severe and damage freedom of speech. Freedom of religion is constitutionally guaranteed by the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen.

Nonetheless, it does recognize religious associations. The Parliament has listed many religious movements as dangerous cults since , and has banned wearing conspicuous religious symbols in schools since In , it banned the wearing of face-covering Islamic veils in public ; human rights groups such as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch described the law as discriminatory towards Muslims.

France is a founding member of the United Nations and serves as one of the permanent members of the UN Security Council with veto rights.

Postwar French foreign policy has been largely shaped by membership of the European Union, of which it was a founding member. Since the s , France has developed close ties with reunified Germany to become the most influential driving force of the EU.

However, since , France has maintained an " Entente cordiale " with the United Kingdom , and there has been a strengthening of links between the countries, especially militarily.

France is a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation NATO , but under President de Gaulle, it excluded itself from the joint military command to protest the special relationship between the United States and Britain and to preserve the independence of French foreign and security policies.

In the early s, the country drew considerable criticism from other nations for its underground nuclear tests in French Polynesia.

In , France was the fourth-largest in absolute terms donor of development aid in the world, behind the United States, the United Kingdom and Germany.

Together they are among the largest armed forces in the world and the largest in the EU. While the Gendarmerie is an integral part of the French armed forces gendarmes are career soldiers , and therefore under the purview of the Ministry of the Armed Forces , it is operationally attached to the Ministry of the Interior as far as its civil police duties are concerned.

The following special units are also part of the Gendarmerie: There has been no national conscription since France has a special military corps, the French Foreign Legion , founded in , which consists of foreign nationals from over countries who are willing to serve in the French Armed Forces and become French citizens after the end of their service period.

The only other countries having similar units are Spain the Spanish Foreign Legion, called Tercio , was founded in and Luxembourg foreigners can serve in the National Army provided they speak Luxembourgish.

France is a permanent member of the Security Council of the UN , and a recognised nuclear state since French nuclear deterrence, formerly known as " Force de Frappe " , relies on complete independence.

The current French nuclear force consists of four Triomphant class submarines equipped with submarine-launched ballistic missiles. France has major military industries with one of the largest aerospace industries in the world.

Other smaller parades are organised across the country. The Government of France has run a budget deficit each year since the early s.

As of [update] , French government debt levels reached 2. France has a mixed economy that combines extensive private enterprise [] [] with substantial state enterprise and government intervention.

The government retains considerable influence over key segments of infrastructure sectors, with majority ownership of railway, electricity, aircraft, nuclear power and telecommunications.

Financial services, banking and the insurance sector are an important part of the economy. Three largest financial institutions cooperatively owned by their customers are located in France.

France is a member of the Eurozone around million consumers which is part of the European Single Market more than million consumers.

Several domestic commercial policies are determined by agreements among European Union EU members and by EU legislation. France introduced the common European currency, the Euro in French companies have maintained key positions in the insurance and banking industries: France has historically been a large producer of agricultural products.

Wheat, poultry, dairy, beef, and pork, as well as internationally recognised processed foods are the primary French agricultural exports.

It is third in income from tourism due to shorter duration of visits. With more than 10 millions tourists a year, the French Riviera French: With 6 millions tourists a year, the castles of the Loire Valley French: The " Remarkable Gardens " label is a list of the over gardens classified by the French Ministry of Culture.

This label is intended to protect and promote remarkable gardens and parks. France attracts many religious pilgrims on their way to St.

France is the smallest emitter of carbon dioxide among the G8 , due to its heavy investment in nuclear power. Rail connections exist to all other neighbouring countries in Europe, except Andorra.

French roads also handle substantial international traffic, connecting with cities in neighbouring Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Spain, Andorra and Monaco.

There is no annual registration fee or road tax ; however, usage of the mostly privately owned motorways is through tolls except in the vicinity of large communes.

There are airports in France. Air France is the national carrier airline, although numerous private airline companies provide domestic and international travel services.

There are ten major ports in France, the largest of which is in Marseille , [] which also is the largest bordering the Mediterranean Sea. Since the Middle Ages , France has been a major contributor to scientific and technological achievement.

They were both key figures of the Scientific revolution , which blossomed in Europe during this period. It was at the forefront of scientific developments in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries.

It is one of the earliest academies of sciences. Other eminent French scientists of the 19th century have their names inscribed on the Eiffel Tower.

Hand transplantation was developed on 23 September in Lyon by a team assembled from different countries around the world including Jean-Michel Dubernard who, shortly thereafter, performed the first successful double hand transplant.

France was the fourth country to achieve nuclear capability [] and has the third largest nuclear weapons arsenal in the world. The TGV has been the fastest wheeled train in commercial use since reaching a speed of As of [update] , 69 French people have been awarded a Nobel Prize [] and 12 have received the Fields Medal.

With an estimated total population of France is also second most populous country in the European Union after Germany. France is an outlier among developed countries in general, and European countries in particular, in having a fairly high rate of natural population growth: This was the highest rate since the end of the baby boom in , and coincides with the rise of the total fertility rate from a nadir of 1.

As of January [update] the fertility rate was 1. Large-scale immigration over the last century and a half has led to a more multicultural society.

A law originating from the revolution and reaffirmed in the French Constitution makes it illegal for the French state to collect data on ethnicity and ancestry.

There are also sizeable minorities of other European ethnic groups , namely Spanish , Portuguese , Polish , and Greek.

France has a significant Gypsy Gitan population, numbering between 20, and , France remains a major destination for immigrants, accepting about , legal immigrants annually.

According to the French Institute, this increase resulting from the financial crisis that hit several European countries in that period, has pushed up the number of Europeans installed in France.

France is a highly urbanized country, with its largest cities in terms of metropolitan area population in [] being Paris 12,, inh. There are significant differences between the metropolitan population figures just cited and those in the following table, which only include the core population.

Rural flight was a perennial political issue throughout most of the 20th century. According to Article 2 of the Constitution, the official language of France is French, [] a Romance language derived from Latin.

The French government does not regulate the choice of language in publications by individuals but the use of French is required by law in commercial and workplace communications.

In addition to mandating the use of French in the territory of the Republic, the French government tries to promote French in the European Union and globally through institutions such as La Francophonie.

The perceived threat from anglicisation has prompted efforts to safeguard the position of the French language in France.

Besides French, there exist 77 vernacular minority languages of France, eight spoken in French metropolitan territory and 69 in the French overseas territories.

From the 17th to the midth century, French served as the pre-eminent international language of diplomacy and international affairs as well as a lingua franca among the educated classes of Europe.

For most of the time in which French served as an international lingua franca, it was not the native language of most Frenchmen: French is the second most studied foreign language in the world after English, [] and is a lingua franca in some regions, notably in Africa.

The legacy of French as a living language outside Europe is mixed: On the other hand, many former French colonies have adopted French as an official language, and the total number of French speakers is increasing, especially in Africa.

It is estimated that between million [] and million [] people worldwide can speak French, either as a mother tongue or a second language.

According to the Adult Education survey, part of a project by the European Union and carried in France by the Insee and based on a sample of 15, persons, French was the first mother tongue of People who had other languages as their mother tongue made up the 5.

Religion in France [2]. France is a secular country, and freedom of religion is a constitutional right. Catholicism has been the predominant religion in France for more than a millennium, though it is not as actively practised today as it was.

In some cases clergy and churches were attacked, with iconoclasm stripping the churches of statues and ornament. It recognises religious organisations according to formal legal criteria that do not address religious doctrine.

Conversely, religious organisations are expected to refrain from intervening in policy-making. Secte is considered a pejorative term in France.

The French health care system is one of universal health care largely financed by government national health insurance.

In its assessment of world health care systems, the World Health Organization found that France provided the "close to best overall health care" in the world.

Average life expectancy at birth is 78 years for men and 85 years for women, one of the highest of the European Union and the World.

Even if the French have the reputation of being one of the thinnest people in developed countries, [] [] [] [] [] [] France—like other rich countries—faces an increasing and recent epidemic of obesity , due mostly to the replacement in French eating habits of traditional healthy French cuisine by junk food.

Rates of childhood obesity are slowing in France, while continuing to grow in other countries. Nowadays, the schooling system in France is centralised, and is composed of three stages, primary education, secondary education, and higher education.

In France, education is compulsory from six to sixteen years old, and the public school is secular and free. While training and remuneration of teachers and the curriculum are the responsibility of the state centrally, the management of primary and secondary schools is overseen by local authorities.

Nursery school aims to stimulate the minds of very young children and promote their socialisation and development of a basic grasp of language and number.

Around the age of six, children transfer to elementary school, whose primary objectives are learning about writing, arithmetic and citizenship.

Secondary education also consists of two phases. France has been a centre of Western cultural development for centuries.

Many French artists have been among the most renowned of their time, and France is still recognised in the world for its rich cultural tradition.

The successive political regimes have always promoted artistic creation, and the creation of the Ministry of Culture in helped preserve the cultural heritage of the country and make it available to the public.

The Ministry of Culture has been very active since its creation, granting subsidies to artists, promoting French culture in the world, supporting festivals and cultural events, protecting historical monuments.

The French government also succeeded in maintaining a cultural exception to defend audiovisual products made in the country. France receives the highest number of tourists per year, largely thanks to the numerous cultural establishments and historical buildings implanted all over the territory.

The 43, buildings protected as historical monuments include mainly residences many castles and religious buildings cathedrals , basilicas , churches , but also statutes, memorials and gardens.

The origins of French art were very much influenced by Flemish art and by Italian art at the time of the Renaissance.

Jean Fouquet , the most famous medieval French painter, is said to have been the first to travel to Italy and experience the Early Renaissance at first hand.

The Renaissance painting School of Fontainebleau was directly inspired by Italian painters such as Primaticcio and Rosso Fiorentino , who both worked in France.

The 17th century was the period when French painting became prominent and individualised itself through classicism. Many museums in France are entirely or partly devoted to sculptures and painting works.

During the Middle Ages, many fortified castles were built by feudal nobles to mark their powers. During this era, France had been using Romanesque architecture like most of Western Europe.

Some of the greatest examples of Romanesque churches in France are the Saint Sernin Basilica in Toulouse , the largest romanesque church in Europe, [] and the remains of the Cluniac Abbey.

The kings were crowned in another important Gothic church: Following the renaissance and the end of the Middle Ages, Baroque architecture replaced the traditional Gothic style.

However, in France, baroque architecture found a greater success in the secular domain than in a religious one. Jules Hardouin Mansart , who designed the extensions to Versailles, was one of the most influential French architect of the baroque era; he is famous for his dome at Les Invalides.

On the military architectural side, Vauban designed some of the most efficient fortresses in Europe and became an influential military architect; as a result, imitations of his works can be found all over Europe, the Americas, Russia and Turkey.

After the Revolution, the Republicans favoured Neoclassicism although neoclassicism was introduced in France prior to the revolution with such building as the Parisian Pantheon or the Capitole de Toulouse.

Under Napoleon III , a new wave of urbanism and architecture was given birth; extravagant buildings such as the neo-baroque Palais Garnier were built.

The architecture associated to this era is named Second Empire in English, the term being taken from the Second French Empire. In the late 19th century, Gustave Eiffel designed many bridges, such as Garabit viaduct , and remains one of the most influential bridge designers of his time, although he is best remembered for the iconic Eiffel Tower.

More recently, French architects have combined both modern and old architectural styles. The Louvre Pyramid is an example of modern architecture added to an older building.

The most difficult buildings to integrate within French cities are skyscrapers, as they are visible from afar. For instance, in Paris, since , new buildings had to be under 37 meters feet.

The earliest French literature dates from the Middle Ages , when what is now known as modern France did not have a single, uniform language.

There were several languages and dialects and writers used their own spelling and grammar. Much medieval French poetry and literature were inspired by the legends of the Matter of France , such as The Song of Roland and the various chansons de geste.

Michel de Montaigne was the other major figure of the French literature during that century. His most famous work, Essais , created the literary genre of the essay.

Generations of French pupils had to learn his fables, that were seen as helping teaching wisdom and common sense to the young people. French literature and poetry flourished even more in the 18th and 19th centuries.

The 19th century saw the writings of many renowned French authors. Victor Hugo is sometimes seen as "the greatest French writer of all times" [] for excelling in all literary genres.

The preface of his play Cromwell is considered to be the manifesto of the Romantic movement. The Prix Goncourt is a French literary prize first awarded in Medieval philosophy was dominated by Scholasticism until the emergence of Humanism in the Renaissance.

Descartes revitalised Western philosophy , which had been declined after the Greek and Roman eras. French philosophers produced some of the most important political works of the Age of Enlightenment.

In The Spirit of the Laws , Baron de Montesquieu theorised the principle of separation of powers , which has been implemented in all liberal democracies since it was first applied in the United States.

Voltaire came to embody the Enlightenment with his defence of civil liberties, such as the right to a free trial and freedom of religion.

France has a long and varied musical history. It experienced a golden age in the 17th century thanks to Louis XIV, who employed a number of talented musicians and composers in the royal court.

After the death of the "Roi Soleil", French musical creation lost dynamism, but in the next century the music of Jean-Philippe Rameau reached some prestige, and today he is still one of the most renowned French composers.

Rameau became the dominant composer of French opera and the leading French composer for the harpsichord.

French composers played an important role during the music of the 19th and early 20th century, which is considered to be the Romantic music era.

Romantic music emphasised a surrender to nature, a fascination with the past and the supernatural, the exploration of unusual, strange and surprising sounds, and a focus on national identity.

This period was also a golden age for operas. French composers from the Romantic era included: Later came precursors of modern classical music.

Maurice Ravel and Claude Debussy are the most prominent figures associated with Impressionist music. Debussy was among the most influential composers of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and his use of non-traditional scales and chromaticism influenced many composers who followed.

The two composers invented new musical forms [] [] [] [] and new sounds. More recently, the middle of the 20th century, Maurice Ohana , Pierre Schaeffer and Pierre Boulez contributed to the evolutions of contemporary classical music.

French music then followed the rapid emergence of pop and rock music at the middle of the 20th century. In the s and s decade , electronic duos Daft Punk , Justice and Air also reached worldwide popularity and contributed to the reputation of modern electronic music in the world.

Among current musical events and institutions in France, many are dedicated to classical music and operas. It is noted for having a strong film industry, due in part to protections afforded by the French government.

France remains a leader in filmmaking, as of [update] producing more films than any other European country. Apart from its strong and innovative film tradition, France has also been a gathering spot for artists from across Europe and the world.

For this reason, French cinema is sometimes intertwined with the cinema of foreign nations. Conversely, French directors have had prolific and influential careers in other countries, such as Luc Besson , Jacques Tourneur , or Francis Veber in the United States.

Until recently, France had for centuries been the cultural center of the world, [] although its dominant position has been surpassed by the United States.

Subsequently, France takes steps in protecting and promoting its culture, becoming a leading advocate of the cultural exception.

S and Israel, voted against it. Fashion has been an important industry and cultural export of France since the 17th century, and modern "haute couture" originated in Paris in the s.

The expression Haute couture is, in France, a legally protected name, guaranteeing certain quality standards. The association of France with fashion and style French: But France renewed its dominance of the high fashion French: The French perfume industry is world leader in its sector and is centered on the town of Grasse.

The s saw a conglomeration of many French couture houses under luxury giants and multinationals such as LVMH. Like in most industrialised nations, the print media have been affected by a severe crisis in the past decade.

In , the government launched a major initiative to help the sector reform and become financially independent, [] [] but in it had to give , euros to help the print media cope with the economic crisis , in addition to existing subsidies.

In , after years of centralised monopoly on radio and television, the governmental agency ORTF was split into several national institutions, but the three already-existing TV channels and four national radio stations [] [] remained under state-control.

It was only in that the government allowed free broadcasting in the territory, ending state monopoly on radio.

In , the government created global news channel France According to a poll in , the French were found to have the highest level of religious tolerance and to be the country where the highest proportion of the population defines its identity primarily in term of nationality and not religion.

In addition, Bastille Day , the national holiday, commemorates the storming of the Bastille on 14 July A common and traditional symbol of the French people is the Gallic rooster.

Its origins date back to Antiquity, since the Latin word Gallus meant both " rooster " and "inhabitant of Gaul". Then this figure gradually became the most widely shared representation of the French, used by French monarchs, then by the Revolution and under the successive republican regimes as representation of the national identity, used for some stamps and coins.

French cuisine is renowned for being one of the finest in the world. There are more than different varieties.

The plat principal could include a pot au feu or steak frites. French cuisine is also regarded as a key element of the quality of life and the attractiveness of France.

By , the Michelin Guide had awarded stars to French restaurants, at that time more than any other country, although the guide also inspects more restaurants in France than in any other country by , Japan was awarded as many Michelin stars as France, despite having half the number of Michelin inspectors working there.

In addition to its wine tradition, France is also a major producer of beer and rum. Since , France hosts the annual Tour de France , the most famous road bicycle race in the world.

French martial arts include Savate and Fencing. Football is the most popular sport in France, with over 1,, registered players, and over 18, registered clubs.

The top national football club competition is Ligue 1. It is the premier clay court tennis championship event in the world and the second of four annual Grand Slam tournaments.

Rugby union is popular, particularly in Paris and the southwest of France. Stemming from a strong domestic league , the French rugby team has won 16 Six Nations Championships, including 8 grand slams ; and has reached the semi-final of the Rugby World Cup 6 times, going on to the final 3 times.

Rugby league in France is mostly played and followed in the South of France, in cities such as Perpignan and Toulouse.

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Some proposals exist to simplify the existing writing system, but they still fail to gather interest. In , a reform accepted some changes to French orthography.

At the time the proposed changes were considered to be suggestions. In , schoolbooks in France began to use the newer recommended spellings, with instruction to teachers that both old and new spellings be deemed correct.

French is a moderately inflected language. Nouns and most pronouns are inflected for number singular or plural, though in most nouns the plural is pronounced the same as the singular even if spelled differently ; adjectives , for number and gender masculine or feminine of their nouns; personal pronouns and a few other pronouns, for person , number, gender, and case ; and verbs , for tense , aspect , mood , and the person and number of their subjects.

Case is primarily marked using word order and prepositions , while certain verb features are marked using auxiliary verbs.

According to the French lexicogrammatical system, French has a rank-scale hierarchy with clause as the top rank, which is followed by group rank, word rank, and morpheme rank.

A French clause is made up of groups, groups are made up of words, and lastly, words are made up of morphemes. Every French noun is either masculine or feminine.

For nouns regarding the living, their grammatical genders often correspond to that which they refer to. For example, a male teacher is a "enseignant" while a female teacher is a "enseignante.

So a group of two male teachers would be "enseignants. The article used for singular nouns is different from that used for plural nouns and the article provides a distinguishing factor between the two in speech.

For example, the singular "le professeur" or "la professeur e " the male or female teacher, professor can be distinguished from the plural "les professeurs" because "le," "la," and "les" are all pronounced differently.

There are some situations where both the feminine and masculine form of a noun are the same and the article provides the only difference.

For example, "le dentiste" refers to a male dentist while "la dentiste" refers to a female dentist.

The French language consists of both finite and non-finite moods. The indicative mood makes use of eight different tense-aspect forms.

Some forms are less commonly used today. The subjunctive mood only includes four of the tense-aspect forms found in the indicative: The imperative is used in the present tense with the exception of a few instances where it is used in the perfect tense.

French uses both the active voice and the passive voice. French declarative word order is subject—verb—object although a pronoun object precedes the verb.

Specifically, the first translates into "Do you speak French? In many cases a single etymological root appears in French in a "popular" or native form, inherited from Vulgar Latin, and a learned form, borrowed later from Classical Latin.

The following pairs consist of a native noun and a learned adjective:. However, a historical tendency to gallicise Latin roots can be identified, whereas English conversely leans towards a more direct incorporation of the Latin:.

It can be difficult to identify the Latin source of native French words, because in the evolution from Vulgar Latin , unstressed syllables were severely reduced and the remaining vowels and consonants underwent significant modifications.

More recently the linguistic policy of the French language academies of France and Quebec has been to provide French equivalents to mainly English imported words, either by using existing vocabulary, extending its meaning or deriving a new word according to French morphological rules.

The result is often two or more co-existing terms for describing the same phenomenon. Root languages of loanwords [93].

One study analyzing the degree of differentiation of Romance languages in comparison to Latin estimated that among the languages analyzed French has the greatest distance from Latin.

The French counting system is partially vigesimal: The French word for 80 is quatre-vingts , literally "four twenties", and the word for 75 is soixante-quinze , literally "sixty-fifteen".

This reform arose after the French Revolution to unify the different counting systems mostly vigesimal near the coast, because of Celtic via Breton and Viking influences.

This system is comparable to the archaic English use of score , as in "fourscore and seven" 87 , or "threescore and ten" In Old French during the Middle Ages , all numbers from 30 to 99 could be said in either base 10 or base 20, e.

In the French spoken in these places, 70 and 90 are septante and nonante. Octante had been used in Switzerland in the past, but is now considered archaic, [99] while in the Aosta Valley 80 is huitante.

French, like most European languages, uses a space to separate thousands. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. It is not to be confused with Francophonie.

This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

Old French Middle French. Regions where French is the main language. Regions where it is an official language but not a majority native language.

Regions where it is a second language. Regions where it is a minority language. Geographical distribution of French speakers.

Countries usually considered part of Francophone Africa. Their population was million in , [25] and it is forecast to reach between million [26] and million [25] in Countries sometimes considered as Francophone Africa.

French language in Lebanon. Dialects of the French language. French alphabet and French braille. French orthography and Reforms of French orthography.

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Retrieved 23 September English, French and official language minorities in Canada". Retrieved 23 April Archived from the original on Retrieved 21 November Nathan , Paris , Archived from the original on 27 September La francophonie de demain".

Retrieved 13 June Archived from the original on 29 March Policies for Managing Cultural Diversity". The Oxford Handbook of Multicultural Identity.

Oxford Library of Psychology. It is important to note, however, that not all countries have an official language. Until , France had discouraged the use of regional languages Women forced their way into the political sphere.

They swore oaths of loyalty, "solemn declarations of patriotic allegiance, [and] affirmations of the political responsibilities of citizenship.

The March to Versailles is but one example of feminist militant activism during the French Revolution. The Society of Revolutionary Republican Women, a militant group on the far left, demanded a law in that would compel all women to wear the tricolour cockade to demonstrate their loyalty to the Republic.

They also demanded vigorous price controls to keep bread — the major food of the poor people — from becoming too expensive. After the Convention passage law in September , the Revolutionary Republican Women demanded vigorous enforcement, but were counted by market women, former servants, and religious women who adamantly opposed price controls which would drive them out of business and resented attacks on the aristocracy and on religion.

Fist fights broke out in the streets between the two factions of women. Meanwhile, the men who controlled the Jacobins rejected the Revolutionary Republican Women as dangerous rabble-rousers.

They sternly reminded women to stay home and tend to their families by leaving public affairs to the men. Organised women were permanently shut out of the French Revolution after 30 October Olympe de Gouges wrote a number of plays, short stories, and novels.

In her "Declaration on the Rights of Woman" she insisted that women deserved rights, especially in areas concerning them directly, such as divorce and recognition of illegitimate children.

Manon or Marie Roland was another important female activist. Her political focus was not specifically on women or their liberation.

She focused on other aspects of the government, but was a feminist by virtue of the fact that she was a woman working to influence the world.

Her personal letters to leaders of the Revolution influenced policy; in addition, she often hosted political gatherings of the Brissotins, a political group which allowed women to join.

As she was led to the scaffold, Madame Roland shouted "O liberty! What crimes are committed in thy name! Most of these activists were punished for their actions.

Many of the women of the Revolution were even publicly executed for "conspiring against the unity and the indivisibility of the Republic".

A major aspect of the French Revolution was the dechristianisation movement, a movement strongly rejected by many devout people. Especially for women living in rural areas of France, the closing of the churches meant a loss of normalcy.

When these revolutionary changes to the Church were implemented, it sparked a counter-revolutionary movement among women.

Although some of these women embraced the political and social amendments of the Revolution, they opposed the dissolution of the Catholic Church and the formation of revolutionary cults like the Cult of the Supreme Being.

Counter-revolutionary women resisted what they saw as the intrusion of the state into their lives. By far the most important issue to counter-revolutionary women was the passage and the enforcement of the Civil Constitution of the Clergy in In response to this measure, women in many areas began circulating anti-oath pamphlets and refused to attend masses held by priests who had sworn oaths of loyalty to the Republic.

These women continued to adhere to traditional practices such as Christian burials and naming their children after saints in spite of revolutionary decrees to the contrary.

The French Revolution abolished many of the constraints on the economy that had slowed growth during the ancien regime. It abolished tithes owed to local churches as well as feudal dues owed to local landlords.

The result hurt the tenants, who paid both higher rents and higher taxes. It planned to use these seized lands to finance the government by issuing assignats.

It abolished the guild system as a worthless remnant of feudalism. The government seized the foundations that had been set up starting in the 13th century to provide an annual stream of revenue for hospitals, poor relief, and education.

The economy did poorly in —96 as industrial and agricultural output dropped, foreign trade plunged, and prices soared.

The government decided not to repudiate the old debts. Instead it issued more and more paper money called "assignat" that supposedly were grounded seized lands.

The result was escalating inflation. The government imposed price controls and persecuted speculators and traders in the black market.

The assignats were withdrawn in but the replacements also fuelled inflation. The inflation was finally ended by Napoleon in with the franc as the new currency.

Napoleon after paid for his expensive wars by multiple means, starting with the modernisation of the rickety financial system. The French Revolution had a major impact on Europe and the New World , decisively changing the course of human history.

Otto Dann and John Dinwiddy report, "It has long been almost a truism of European history that the French Revolution gave a great stimulus to the growth of modern nationalism.

Hayes as a major result of the French Revolution across Europe. The impact on French nationalism was profound.

For example, Napoleon became such a heroic symbol of the nation that the glory was easily picked up by his nephew, who was overwhelmingly elected president and later became Emperor Napoleon III.

The changes in France were enormous; some were widely accepted and others were bitterly contested into the late 20th century. The kings had so thoroughly centralised the system that most nobles spent their time at Versailles, and thus played only a small direct role in their home districts.

Thompson says that the kings had "ruled by virtue of their personal wealth, their patronage of the nobility, their disposal of ecclesiastical offices, their provincial governors intendants their control over the judges and magistrates, and their command of the Army.

After the first year of revolution, the power of the king had been stripped away, he was left a mere figurehead, the nobility had lost all their titles and most of their land, the Church lost its monasteries and farmlands, bishops, judges and magistrates were elected by the people, and the army was almost helpless, with military power in the hands of the new revolutionary National Guard.

The central elements of were the slogan "Liberty, Equality and Fraternity" and " The Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen ", which Lefebvre calls "the incarnation of the Revolution as a whole.

The long-term impact on France was profound, shaping politics, society, religion and ideas, and polarising politics for more than a century.

The French Revolution differed from other revolutions in being not merely national, for it aimed at benefiting all humanity. The most heated controversy was over the status of the Catholic Church.

The movement to dechristianise France not only failed but aroused a furious reaction among the pious. Priests and bishops were given salaries as part of a department of government controlled by Paris, not Rome.

Protestants and Jews gained equal rights. They raged into the 20th century. By the 21st century, angry debates exploded over the presence of any Muslim religious symbols in schools, such as the headscarves for which Muslim girls could be expelled.

Christopher Soper and Joel S. Fetzer explicitly link the conflict over religious symbols in public to the French Revolution, when the target was Catholic rituals and symbols.

The revolutionary government seized the charitable foundations that had been set up starting in the 13th century to provide an annual stream of revenue for hospitals, poor relief, and education.

In the ancien regime, new opportunities for nuns as charitable practitioners were created by devout nobles on their own estates.

During the Revolution, most of the orders of nuns were shut down and there was no organised nursing care to replace them. They were tolerated by officials because they had widespread support and were the link between elite male physicians and distrustful peasants who needed help.

Two thirds of France was employed in agriculture, which was transformed by the Revolution. With the breakup of large estates controlled by the Church and the nobility and worked by hired hands, rural France became more a land of small independent farms.

Harvest taxes were ended, such as the tithe and seigneurial dues, much to the relief of the peasants.

Primogeniture was ended both for nobles and peasants, thereby weakening the family patriarch. In the cities, entrepreneurship on a small scale flourished, as restrictive monopolies, privileges, barriers, rules, taxes and guilds gave way.

However, the British blockade virtually ended overseas and colonial trade, hurting the port cities and their supply chains.

Overall, the Revolution did not greatly change the French business system, and probably helped freeze in place the horizons of the small business owner.

The typical businessman owned a small store, mill or shop, with family help and a few paid employees; large-scale industry was less common than in other industrialising nations.

A National Bureau of Economic Research paper found that the emigration of more than , individuals predominantly supporters of the Old Regime during the Revolution had a significant negative impact on income per capita in the 19th century due to the fragmentation of agricultural holdings but became positive in the second half of the 20th century onward because it facilitated the rise in human capital investments.

The Revolution meant an end to arbitrary royal rule and held out the promise of rule by law under a constitutional order, but it did not rule out a monarch.

Napoleon as emperor set up a constitutional system although he remained in full control , and the restored Bourbons were forced to go along with one.

After the abdication of Napoleon III in , the monarchists probably had a voting majority, but they were so factionalised they could not agree on who should be king, and instead the French Third Republic was launched with a deep commitment to upholding the ideals of the Revolution.

Vichy denied the principle of equality and tried to replace the Revolutionary watchwords "Liberty, Equality, Fraternity" with "Work, Family, and Fatherland.

France permanently became a society of equals under the law. The Jacobin cause was picked up by Marxists in the midth century and became an element of communist thought around the world.

In the Soviet Union , "Gracchus" Babeuf was regarded as a hero. Robinson the French Revolution had long-term effects in Europe.

They suggest that "areas that were occupied by the French and that underwent radical institutional reform experienced more rapid urbanization and economic growth, especially after There is no evidence of a negative effect of French invasion.

A study in the European Economic Review found that the areas of Germany that were occupied by France in the 19th century and in which the Code Napoleon was applied have higher levels of trust and cooperation today.

From this moment we may consider France as a free country, the King a very limited monarch, and the nobility as reduced to a level with the rest of the nation.

Britain led and funded the series of coalitions that fought France from to , and then restored the Bourbons.

Philosophically and politically, Britain was in debate over the rights and wrongs of revolution, in the abstract and in practicalities.

The Revolution Controversy was a " pamphlet war " set off by the publication of A Discourse on the Love of Our Country , a speech given by Richard Price to the Revolution Society on 4 November , supporting the French Revolution as he had the American Revolution , and saying that patriotism actually centers around loving the people and principles of a nation, not its ruling class.

Edmund Burke responded in November with his own pamphlet, Reflections on the Revolution in France , attacking the French Revolution as a threat to the aristocracy of all countries.

In Christopher Wyvill published Defence of Dr. Price and the Reformers of England , a plea for reform and moderation.

This exchange of ideas has been described as "one of the great political debates in British history". In Ireland, the effect was to transform what had been an attempt by Protestant settlers to gain some autonomy into a mass movement led by the Society of United Irishmen involving Catholics and Protestants.

It stimulated the demand for further reform throughout Ireland, especially in Ulster. The upshot was a revolt in , led by Wolfe Tone , that was crushed by Britain.

German reaction to the Revolution swung from favourable to antagonistic. At first it brought liberal and democratic ideas, the end of gilds, serfdom and the Jewish ghetto.

It brought economic freedoms and agrarian and legal reform. Above all the antagonism helped stimulate and shape German nationalism.

The French invaded Switzerland and turned it into an ally known as the " Helvetic Republic " — The interference with localism and traditional liberties was deeply resented, although some modernising reforms took place.

The region of modern-day Belgium was divided between two polities: Both territories experienced revolutions in Both failed to attract international support.

During the Revolutionary Wars, the French invaded and occupied the region between and , a time known as the French period. The new government enforced new reforms, incorporating the region into France itself.

New rulers were sent in by Paris. Belgian men were drafted into the French wars and heavily taxed. Nearly everyone was Catholic, but the Church was repressed.

Resistance was strong in every sector, as Belgian nationalism emerged to oppose French rule. The French legal system, however, was adopted, with its equal legal rights, and abolition of class distinctions.

Belgium now had a government bureaucracy selected by merit. Antwerp regained access to the sea and grew quickly as a major port and business centre.

France promoted commerce and capitalism, paving the way for the ascent of the bourgeoisie and the rapid growth of manufacturing and mining. The Kingdom of Denmark adopted liberalising reforms in line with those of the French Revolution, with no direct contact.

Reform was gradual and the regime itself carried out agrarian reforms that had the effect of weakening absolutism by creating a class of independent peasant freeholders.

Much of the initiative came from well-organised liberals who directed political change in the first half of the 19th century. The Revolution deeply polarised American politics, and this polarisation led to the creation of the First Party System.

In , as war broke out in Europe, the Republican Party led by Thomas Jefferson favoured France and pointed to the treaty that was still in effect.

George Washington and his unanimous cabinet, including Jefferson, decided that the treaty did not bind the United States to enter the war.

Washington proclaimed neutrality instead. Jefferson became president in , but was hostile to Napoleon as a dictator and emperor. However, the two entered negotiations over the Louisiana Territory and agreed to the Louisiana Purchase in , an acquisition that substantially increased the size of the United States.

The French Revolution has received enormous amounts of historical attention, both from the general public and from scholars and academics. The views of historians, in particular, have been characterised as falling along ideological lines, with disagreement over the significance and the major developments of the Revolution.

Historians until the late 20th century emphasised class conflicts from a largely Marxist perspective as the fundamental driving cause of the Revolution.

By the year many historians were saying that the field of the French Revolution was in intellectual disarray.

The old model or paradigm focusing on class conflict has been discredited, and no new explanatory model had gained widespread support.

Historians widely regard the Revolution as one of the most important events in history. It marks the end of the early modern period , which started around and is often seen as marking the "dawn of the modern era ".

After the collapse of the First Empire in , the French public lost the rights and privileges earned since the Revolution, but they remembered the participatory politics that characterised the period, with one historian commenting: Revolution became a tradition, and republicanism an enduring option.

Some historians argue that the French people underwent a fundamental transformation in self-identity, evidenced by the elimination of privileges and their replacement by rights as well as the growing decline in social deference that highlighted the principle of equality throughout the Revolution.

This, combined with the egalitarian values introduced by the revolution, gave rise to a classless and co-operative model for society called " socialism " which profoundly influenced future revolutions in France and around the world.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see French Revolution disambiguation. The Storming of the Bastille , 14 July Part of a series on the.

Direct Capetians — Valois — Causes of the French Revolution. Estates General of in France. National Assembly French Revolution.

National Constituent Assembly France. Storming of the Bastille. Abolition of feudalism in France. Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen.

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Symbolism in the French Revolution. The French national anthem La Marseillaise ; text in French. Influence of the French Revolution.

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